Mexico geographically belongs to North America, and both literally and symbolically links South America to North America – through not just land but also culture. In North America, Mexico’s location has allowed it to disperse into the southern and southwester United States, shaping the traditions of New Mexico, Texas, and California regions alike.

Bordering countries include: the United States of America, Guatemala, and Belize.

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The Maya, Totonac, Huastec, Otomi, Mixtecs, Zapotecs, Tlaxcalans, and Aztecs were among the many native cultures in Mexico whose lands and health were disrupted by the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. Mexico gained its independence from Spain in September of 1810, officially on November 6, 1812. After defaulting on foreign loans, Great Britain, Spain and France occupied Veracruz — France ultimately overthrew the Mexican government, and the Mexican armies effectively won the ensuing war at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862.

For 31 years, President Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico as a dicator. In 1910, Francisco Madero headed the Mexican Revolution as he called for an uprising. In 1911, Emiliano Zapata led an uprising of peasants, and in combination with other armed revolts throughout Mexico, the revolution ended when Diaz resigned.

Modern Mexico saw a 7-decade rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) until a new president was elected in 2000  from the National Action Party.

In 1994, NAFTA went into effect and the Zapatista National Liberation Army’s Chiapas uprising claimed over 140 victims in one of the most violent events in Mexican history.





Economic Crisis of 1994 (“Mexican Peso Crisis”) — A fixed exchange rate, rolling over of government debt, and subsequent banking system issues caused the devaluation of the Mexican peso. The Mexico government sought a foreign loan to avert total collapse, but the crisis remains among the worst in history.

Once NAFTA was implemented in 1994, Mexico and the United States have relied heavily on one another for exporting and importing. Mexico’s economy models a free market, with emphasis in the private sector , although income inequality remains a pertinent issue.

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